- Considered as an inferior grain used for food as well as fodder for cattle.
- Its Grain used to obtain starch or glucose.
- Stalk (the Stem of the Crop) is used to feed the cattles.
- Conditions for growth.
- Production of maize.
- Distribution of maize.
Condition for growth
- Maize is mainly a kharif crop in rain fed areas.
- It is sown before onset of monsoon and harvested after retreat of monsoon.
- In Tamil Nadu maize is a rabi crop .it is sown before onset of winter rainy season in September and October
- Rain required for for harvesting of maize is 50 cm-100 cm annually (close to what wheat demands and less than rice). Areas where annual rain is more than 100 cm. we cannot grow maize.
- Long and dry spell during rainy season is dangerous for maize .Sunshine after shower is very useful for its production.
- Cool and dry season is important for its ripening .
- A suitable temperature for harvesting of maize is 20°c to 27°c. It can tolerate extreme temperature of 35°c.
- Frost is injurious for maize and this crop is only grown in those areas which have 4 to 5 months free of frost.
Soil for Maize
- Well drained alluvium or red soil rich in nitrogen is considered good for maize
- It is usually grown in planes but can also be grown in hilly areas.
- maize cultivation is characterized by inter culture along with pulses ,vegetables and oil seeds.
Production of Maize.
- Maize cultivated area is 4 % of India’s total cultivated area.
- Its production has increased from 1.7 Million ton in 1950-51 to 14.7 million in 2003-04(record year)
Distribution of Maize.
- Four states M.P, Andra-Pradesh , Karnataka and Rajasthan accounts for half of total production in India .
- In terms of production in tones .M.P is highest followed by Andra-Pradesh than Karnataka and Rajasthan.
- In terms of yield Andra -Pradesh in at number one followed by Karnataka .
- In terms of area sown under maize Rajasthan is highest ,while its yield of maize is lowest among all states.
- Bihar used to be the top producer of maize but now has lost its importance .
- In hilly states Himachal Pradesh is an important producer of maize.