MAIZE – Food and Fodder Crop.

  • Considered as an  inferior grain used for food as well as fodder for cattle.
  • Its Grain used to obtain starch or glucose.
  • Stalk (the Stem of the Crop) is used to feed  the cattles.

Learning Objectives

  •  Conditions for growth.
  •  Production of maize.
  •  Distribution of maize.

Condition for growth

  • Maize is mainly a kharif crop in rain fed areas.
  • It is sown before onset of monsoon and harvested after retreat of monsoon.
  • In Tamil Nadu maize is a rabi crop .it is sown before onset of winter rainy season in September and October
  • Rain required for for harvesting of maize is 50 cm-100 cm annually (close to what wheat demands and less than rice). Areas where annual rain is more than 100 cm. we cannot grow maize.
  • Long and dry spell during rainy season is dangerous for maize .Sunshine after shower is very useful for its production.
  • Cool and dry season is important for its ripening .
  • A suitable temperature for  harvesting of maize is 20°c to 27°c. It can tolerate extreme temperature of 35°c.
  • Frost is injurious for maize and this crop is only grown in those areas which have 4 to 5 months free of frost.

Soil for Maize 

  • Well drained alluvium or red soil rich in nitrogen is considered good for maize
  • It is usually grown in planes but can also be grown in hilly areas.
  • maize cultivation is characterized by inter culture along with pulses ,vegetables and oil seeds.

 Production of Maize.

  • Maize cultivated area is 4 % of India’s total cultivated area.
  • Its production has increased from 1.7 Million ton in 1950-51 to 14.7 million in 2003-04(record year)

Distribution of Maize.

  • Four states M.P, Andra-Pradesh , Karnataka and Rajasthan  accounts for half of total production in India .
  • In terms of production in tones .M.P is highest followed by Andra-Pradesh  than Karnataka and Rajasthan.
  • In terms of yield Andra -Pradesh in at number one followed by Karnataka .
  • In terms of area sown under maize Rajasthan is highest ,while its yield of maize is lowest among all states.
  • Bihar used to be the top producer of maize but now has lost its importance .
  • In hilly states Himachal Pradesh is an important producer of maize.

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