WHEAT- The Second Most Important Crop.

→   Wheat is the 2nd most important crop after rice in India

→   Staple food for north India and north west India

→   Provides balanced diet compared to rice as it is rich in protein ,vitamins and carbohydrates.

                   

  Learning Objectives.

  • Conditions for  Growth
  • Production of Wheat
  • Distribution of Wheat

Conditions for growth.

  • Wheat is essentially a rabi crop , it is sowed in the beginning of winter but harvested in the beginning of summer.
  • Time for sowing and harvesting differs in different agro climatic regions.
  • Areas where wheat is sowed in September -October – Karnataka ,Maharashtra,M.P, Andra -pradesh,West-bengal.
  • Areas where wheat is sowed in October -November  –  Bihar,U.P, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan.
  • Areas where wheat is sowed in November-December –  Himachal pradesh and Jammu Kashmir.
  • Wheat is a crop of mid latitude grassland.It requires cool climate with moderate rainfall.
  • Temperature required during sowing 10°C to 15°C (little cold climate is required during sowing)
  • Temperature required during harvesting 21°C to 26°C ,but sudden rise in temperature during growing is harmful. That is Climate change is not good for Wheat production. a sudden change of Temperature is not good for any of the crop. this is a rule of Thumb. for any living organism a sudden change of temperature is not good.
  • Wheat thrives well in areas having annual rainfall of 75 cm. (for Rice around 150 cm of rain on an average is required)
  • 100 cm average rainfall is the highest limit.
  • Areas where  average rainfall is  50 cm annually , can support wheat cultivation with irrigation facility .
  • During the maturity time a light drizzle or cloudiness is considered good for healthy production of wheat, while prolonged drought during maturity is dangerous.
  • During flowering period a frost or hail storm is very harmful for the wheat.
  • Cultivation of wheat depends on mechanization as compare to rice however wheat requires less labor work.

Soils Considered good for wheat.

  •  Alluvium
  • Black soil of Deccan plateau (very good for wheat )

Production of Wheat. 

  • Out of total cropped land in India  wheat accounts for 13%
  • After green revolution in 1967 the three aspects of wheat crop i.e production ,area under the crop and yield ,have risen consistently .
  • However in current scenario the thrust provided by green revolution has come to an end.
  • Still we have very low yield compared to other nations like China and U.S.A.
  • Currently our yield in wheat is at 2,700 kg/hectare though it can be raised up to 4,000 kg/hectare in irrigated areas and up to 2,000 kg/hectare in non irrigated areas.

How this can be achieved.

  1.  Area specific Technology have to be used. Example – Micro irrigation in Dry Areas of Deccan Region.
  2. Improved Supply of Better Seeds.
  3. Better supply of fertilizers.
  4. Control of weeds,pest and diseases.
  5. Extending wheat cultivation to non -traditional areas like Assam valley and in Orissa. West-Bengal has already started growing wheat in sufficient quantity.

 Distribution of Wheat.

  • Confined mainly to north eastern region of the country.
  • U.P, Punjab and Haryana are leading states in wheat production— these three states account for 60% of total area under wheat cultivation 75% of total production of wheat in India.
  • Punjab, Haryana and contiguous western u.p are called as Greenery of India.
  • Other important states for wheat cultivation are Rajasthan ,M.P and Bihar.

UTTAR-PRADESH 

  •  Largest Producer of wheat in India accounts for 36% of total production of wheat in India,as well as 36% of total area under wheat in India.
  • It has a vast tracts of alluvium brought by mighty Ganga River and other tributaries.

PUNJAB

  • 2nd largest producer of wheat accounts for 22% of total wheat produced in india
  • Punjab is endowed with fertile alluvium brought by Indus river system,has rich network of canals.

HARYANA

  • Haryana accounts for 14% of total wheat production of country,Thus it has 2nd highest yield after Punjab with 40 quintal/hectare.

 RAJASTHAN

  • Rajasthan is 4th largest producer of wheat accounts for 7% of total wheat production of India.Due to less irrigation facility and less rainfall only few districts of Rajasthan are known for wheat production.

About the author: Aman Kumar

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