→ Wheat is the 2nd most important crop after rice in India
→ Staple food for north India and north west India
→ Provides balanced diet compared to rice as it is rich in protein ,vitamins and carbohydrates.
- Conditions for Growth
- Production of Wheat
- Distribution of Wheat
Conditions for growth.
- Wheat is essentially a rabi crop , it is sowed in the beginning of winter but harvested in the beginning of summer.
- Time for sowing and harvesting differs in different agro climatic regions.
- Areas where wheat is sowed in September -October – Karnataka ,Maharashtra,M.P, Andra -pradesh,West-bengal.
- Areas where wheat is sowed in October -November – Bihar,U.P, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan.
- Areas where wheat is sowed in November-December – Himachal pradesh and Jammu Kashmir.
- Wheat is a crop of mid latitude grassland.It requires cool climate with moderate rainfall.
- Temperature required during sowing 10°C to 15°C (little cold climate is required during sowing)
- Temperature required during harvesting 21°C to 26°C ,but sudden rise in temperature during growing is harmful. That is Climate change is not good for Wheat production. a sudden change of Temperature is not good for any of the crop. this is a rule of Thumb. for any living organism a sudden change of temperature is not good.
- Wheat thrives well in areas having annual rainfall of 75 cm. (for Rice around 150 cm of rain on an average is required)
- 100 cm average rainfall is the highest limit.
- Areas where average rainfall is 50 cm annually , can support wheat cultivation with irrigation facility .
- During the maturity time a light drizzle or cloudiness is considered good for healthy production of wheat, while prolonged drought during maturity is dangerous.
- During flowering period a frost or hail storm is very harmful for the wheat.
- Cultivation of wheat depends on mechanization as compare to rice however wheat requires less labor work.
Soils Considered good for wheat.
- Black soil of Deccan plateau (very good for wheat )
Production of Wheat.
- Out of total cropped land in India wheat accounts for 13%
- After green revolution in 1967 the three aspects of wheat crop i.e production ,area under the crop and yield ,have risen consistently .
- However in current scenario the thrust provided by green revolution has come to an end.
- Still we have very low yield compared to other nations like China and U.S.A.
- Currently our yield in wheat is at 2,700 kg/hectare though it can be raised up to 4,000 kg/hectare in irrigated areas and up to 2,000 kg/hectare in non irrigated areas.
How this can be achieved.
- Area specific Technology have to be used. Example – Micro irrigation in Dry Areas of Deccan Region.
- Improved Supply of Better Seeds.
- Better supply of fertilizers.
- Control of weeds,pest and diseases.
- Extending wheat cultivation to non -traditional areas like Assam valley and in Orissa. West-Bengal has already started growing wheat in sufficient quantity.
Distribution of Wheat.
- Confined mainly to north eastern region of the country.
- U.P, Punjab and Haryana are leading states in wheat production— these three states account for 60% of total area under wheat cultivation 75% of total production of wheat in India.
- Punjab, Haryana and contiguous western u.p are called as Greenery of India.
- Other important states for wheat cultivation are Rajasthan ,M.P and Bihar.
- Largest Producer of wheat in India accounts for 36% of total production of wheat in India,as well as 36% of total area under wheat in India.
- It has a vast tracts of alluvium brought by mighty Ganga River and other tributaries.
- 2nd largest producer of wheat accounts for 22% of total wheat produced in india
- Punjab is endowed with fertile alluvium brought by Indus river system,has rich network of canals.
- Haryana accounts for 14% of total wheat production of country,Thus it has 2nd highest yield after Punjab with 40 quintal/hectare.
Rajasthan is 4th largest producer of wheat accounts for 7% of total wheat production of India.Due to less irrigation facility and less rainfall only few districts of Rajasthan are known for wheat production.