All about Rice/Paddy.- The Most Important Crop in India.


  • Cropped area of rice is one fourth of total cropped area.
  • In eastern  and Southern region rice is a staple food .
  • In total there are 10000 varieties of rice .In India only 4000 varieties are available
  • UN general assembly has declared rice as an important crop for poverty alleviation and food security.UN has also declared 2004 as International rice year -Theme rice is life

     Conditions for its Growth. 

  • In India rice is grown in various conditions  For Example its grown in places between 8N to 25N and from sea level to an altitude of 2500 m
  • Its an Tropical plant which needs high temperature and high humidity.
 Temperature Required.
 20°C to 22°c during Sowing,
23°C to 25°C during Growth,
25°C to 30°C during Harvesting.





Average 150 Cm.

  Areas where rainfall is 200 cm rice is a dominant crop.
Areas where rainfall is 100 cm-200 cm rice is a important    crop.
Areas where in  rainfall is less than 100 cm rice cultivation is not possible.



  • There must be a fair distribution of rainfall through out the year.
  • No month should be there having less than 12 cm of rain fall.
  • During harvesting less water is required compared to the sowing and growing times.
  • Rice is a Crop of plains .In hilly areas terraced cultivation of rice are formed
  • Rice grown in plains  having low mud fields are called Wet or Low land rice
  • In hilly areas the availability of water is low that is why, the rice is called Dry or upland rice

                                                                                 Soil for Rice. 

  • Rice can be grown on Silt, Loam and gravels .It can tolerate acidic or alkaline soil.
  • Deep clay and Loamy soil which easily form mud and develops cracks on drying are best suited for rice i;e alluvial such deep clayey or loamy soil is found around river valley, coastal plains or in Delta plains -Thus rice is dominant crop of the region.
  • Black soil formed due to lava formation is also a good soil for rice cultivation.

                                                                                Rice Culture.

  • It is not suited for Mechanization. Rice culture is essentially a Hue -Culture ,where in from preparing soil bed to the harvesting ,work is done by hands only.
  • The rice cultivation is a labor intensive culture .it requires availability of cheap labor Thus it is cultivated in areas with high population density,which can provide abundant labor supply along with markets to consume it . .
  • In most of rice cultivating states  labor is locally available expect for Haryana and Punjab ,where labors are migrant of eastern India.

      Methods of Rice Cultivation.

  1. Broadcasting method:- Seeds are sown broadcast by hand,this method is used in comparatively dry and less fertile ,it doesn’t require intensive labor easiest method requires less input but also yield is minimum .
  2.  Drilling method:- land is plugged and seeds are dropped , requires more than one person this is mainly used in Peninsular India.
  3. Transplantation:-Practiced in areas with fertile  soil and where abundant rainfall is available ,supply of cheap labor is also required ,seeds are sown in nursery and seeding are prepared ,after 4-5 weeks the seeding are uprooted and planted in fields. Entire process in done by hands its very difficult but provides high yield .
  4. Japaneses Method :- High Yielding varieties are used , same as that of transplanting method however heavy dose of fertilizers are used as varieties are high yielding. In India this method is used in high producing areas.

 Rice Cropping Seasons. 

  • In southern and eastern parts of India  crops are raised throughout the year .Around 2 to 3 crops are raised in a single year .As Hot and humid season is available through out the year .
  • On the other hand only one crop is raised in northern part of India due to cold season.

Production Pattern.

  • India is the 2nd largest producer of rice after china and is also largest consumer of rice as well after China .
  • China produces 21% of total world rice.
  • According to data available for 53 years starting from 1950 till 2003 ,rice production cultivated area and yield have shown an impressive increase .
  • 2001 was the record year in rice production , as the production touched 93 million ton.There after the rice production ,area and yield declined sharply due to 2002 as a severe drought year.
  • Still Following data shows the improvement in rice cultivation .
      1950-1951 2001-02 2003-04

    (Million Ton)

    20.6 93.3 87.0

    (Million Hectare)

    30.8 44.9 42


    668 2,077 2,051
  • Still India is not impressive in terms of yield of rice,when compared to other producers
    CHINA 3600Kg/Hectare
    USA 4770Kg/Hectare
    JAPAN 6246Kg/Hecare
    KOREA 6556Kg/Hectare

How India  Improved Rice Production 

  1. Introduction of High yield variety
  2. expansion of Irrigation facility
  3. fertilizers and improved facility
  4. Cooperative farming
  5. reclamation of water logged soil.

Distribution –Areas where rice production is not Possible:

  1. Himalyan region beyond height of 2500 M.
  2. Marusthali Part of Rajasthan.
  3. Kutch-Saurashtra ,Malwa and Marathwad Region.

Major Rice Producing States in India.

  • West Bengal > Punjab >UP> Andra pradesh these 4 states accounts for 50% of total Indian rice production.

  • Tamil Nadu ,Bihar,  Assam, Odisha, Chattisgarh, Haryana ,Karnataka ,Jharkhand , Maharashtra are other important  states.

About the author: Aman Kumar

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